“2018 saw the fiftieth anniversary of the hugely influential (and sometimes legendary) Mai ’68 movement which began in France; the celebrations took place around the world, and their impact was felt no less widely. The reflection and comprehensive interpretative analysis offered by historical science allowed researchers to approach the events in France from a much more holistic, less reductionist standpoint than previous analyses. The fact is that, as shown by the numerous publications, exhibitions and studies on that historic anniversary, not all the relevant social, political and educational events occurred either within the same geographic arena (i.e. France) or in the same year (1968). Rather, the student movements were a global phenomenon, taking place throughout the so-called ‘long 60s’, with their impact continuing to be felt for a long time afterwards, in both national and global scenarios.
Yet, despite numerous academic and institutional initiatives dealing with these events from (amongst others) a historic, political, sociological or economic standpoint, there have, to date, been few studies which have attempted to examine the movements’ origin, development and impact in the context of the history of education. To further our historical/educational understanding of this phenomenon, drawing upon numerous studies and interdisciplinary discussions, the international symposium ‘The Times They Are A Changin. Globalizing the student rebellion in the long ‘68’ was held at the University of Valencia in October 2018. The primary focus of this event was to look at the student movements as a meaningful expression of the expansive wave of nascent social movements, and a true manifestation of a new social and cultural phenomenon: young people in action. This academic cooperation between a hundred researchers in history of education, educational policy and comparative education (hailing from the US, Canada, Italy, Portugal, Brazil, France, Greece, Slovakia, Hungary, Mexico, Chile, Uruguay and Israel) was possible thanks, amongst other reasons, to the establishment of the Department of Comparative Education and History of Education at the University of Valencia, the journal Espacio, Tiempo y Educación, and the Connecting History of Education Working Group.
The below monographic edition of the journal History of Education and Children’s Literature consists of a dozen studies presented at the symposium in Valencia that have been expanded, revised and assessed for publication. In our view, they constitute a rich, varied and mutually complementary selection of works looking at the global student movements in the 1960s. The impact of student agitation in Argentina, Brazil, Spain, Slovakia, USA, Greece and Israel, as well as elsewhere, is analysed from the perspective of history of education with a view to better understanding the origins and development of the movements. The different historical studies presented herein reflect on the successes, failures, power relations and actions that sought, through education and politics, to mould the world the activists wanted to see. As we shall see below, although the students are the constant in all these movements, other actors (the church, families, trade unions, international organisations, women, etc.) and scenarios are also key in creating a more complete, transnational and less mythologised study of the 1960s from a history-of-education perspective” (Andrés Payà Rico and José Luis Hernández Huerta).
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Students in action during the «long 60s»
edited by Andrés Payà Rico and José Luis Hernández Huerta
Andrés Payà Rico, José Luis Hernández Huerta, Student movements of the «long 1960s». Steps towards the cultural revolution, social change and political transformation.
José Luis Hernández Huerta, Andrés Payà Rico, Other social actors involved in Brazil’s «Long ’68» in the midst of the violence. Public-sphere representations of the Catholic Church’s discourse and actions in solidarity with student agitators.
Blanka Kudláčová, Illegal confessional education of university students in the
secret church in Slovakia in the 1960s.
Kelly Ludkiewicz Alves, From popular culture to social transformation: student
youth, peasants and the Base Education Movement (MEB) in the 1960s.
Sandra Carli, La experiencia estudiantil universitaria en los largos 60s y el estallido del ’69 argentino. Emergencia juvenil y biografías femeninas.
Carmen Sanchidrián Blanco, Women should remain very womanly: female university students and work in Spain in 1968.
Pauli Dávila, Luis M. Naya, Joana Miguelena, On May ’68 in Spain: student youth and the autonomous universities.
Óscar J. Martín García, «They are the force for change in today’s world and they will lead tomorrow’s». The United States and Spanish students in the context of global ’68.
Doron Timor, Student protest and the «Legitimation Crisis» in Israel 1965-1977.
Dimitrios Foteinos, The formation of resistance culture in Greece and the history null curriculum: a preliminary account.
Jones Irwin, «Et Après?» – The 1970s philosophical fallout from May ’68 and its contemporary significance.